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Les chèvres à l'état sauvage.


Les chèvres a l'état sauvage

À côté de la chèvre domestique (Capra hircus), le genre comprend quatre espèces de chèvres sauvages localisées dans les montagnes : les bouquetins (C. ibex et C. pyrenaica), le markhor (C. falconeri), la chèvre sauvage (C. aegagrus) ; la chèvre des montagnes Rocheuses (Oreamnos americanus) appartient à un autre genre.

Les sujets sauvages, de taille moyenne, sont caractérisés par des formes trapues, un pelage court et des jambes à la puissante architecture musculaire. Les mâles, appelés boucs (le vocable de chèvre étant spécifiquement réservé à la femelle), se distinguent de leurs compagnes par les dimensions plus majestueuses des cornes, qui souvent sont en forme de sabre.

Le markhor, ou chèvre de Falconer, qui fréquente les montagnes asiatiques, est l'une des plus grandes espèces du genre. Les mâles, caractérisés par une barbe fournie et une crinière dorsale importante, mesurent de 1,6 m à 1,8 m de longueur, de 0,8 m à 1 m de hauteur et pèsent de 80 à 100 kg. Ils dégagent une impression de puissance encore accentuée par des cornes imposantes atteignant 1,6 m et s'enroulant en spirale autour de leur axe. Les femelles sont plus petites, moins poilues, et leurs cornes sont plus réduites.

La chèvre sauvage, ou chèvre à bézoard, a une stature plus modeste (de 1,20 m à 1,60 m de longueur, de 0,70 à 1 m de hauteur et de 25 à 40 kg, les cornes des mâles atteignant 1,5 m). Elle est probablement l'ancêtre de la chèvre domestique. On la trouve encore en Asie Mineure et dans les îles grecques (Cyclades, Crête, etc.). Il ne subsiste que quelques milliers de représentants des chèvres des montagnes Rocheuses, agiles comme les chamois, et gardant toute l'année une belle toison blanche.

Précédant les bovins dans la compagnie des hommes, la chèvre à bézoard fut domestiquée au VIIe millénaire av. J.-C., et, depuis, la chèvre domestique (C. hircus) fait partie du cheptel dans le monde entier, décriée par ceux qui lui reprochent les déprédations que cette impénitente maraudeuse ne manque pas de faire lorsqu'elle échappe à la surveillance, ou appréciée par ceux qui font commerce de sa viande, de son cuir et de son lait.





Commentaires (18)

1. La chti Nathalie (site web) 19/11/2008

Elles sont si belles comme çà en pleine nature . Très jolies photos

2. valérie 24/05/2009

oui tu as bien raison si tous les chevre pourrait etre aussi bien! ce serais super!!

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4. roy 21/02/2010

J'ai beacoup apprecié toutes les informations que tu donnes à propos des chèvres. Je voulais savoir les races ou les variétés de chèvres qui sont bien adaptées à la savane africaine. j'ai l'idée de monter un projet d'élévage mais j'ai besoins d'avoir des informations.

5. cabanette 21/06/2010

moi je cherche des documents pour mon cours d'SVT
mais je trouve plein de choses merci !
ce site est genial

6. elouchami 24/01/2011

merci beaucoup et je serai tre ravi de vous ecouter

7. Jeanpierre 25/05/2011

Est il possible de trouver une espèces pouvant vivre a l état sauvage dans un enclos d'un hectare?,,

8. Jeanpierre 25/05/2011

J'offre un hectare de foin sur pied dans le 36.a Fredille

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